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The Visualization Toolkit
An Object-Oriented Approach to 3D Graphics
The Visualization Toolkit
An Object-Oriented Approach To 3D Graphics
Fourth Edition
Will Schroeder, Ken Martin, Bill Lorensen
with special contributors:
Lisa Sobierajski Avila, Rick Avila, C. Charles Law
Join the VTK Community at http://www.vtk.org.
Commercial support and consulting is available for this software from Kitware, Inc.
Please visit http://www.kitware.com for more information
or send email to [email protected]
© 2006 Kitware, Inc.
http://www.kitware.com
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means,
without the express written permission of the publisher.
The publisher Kitware, Inc. offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities.
The publisher also produces companion works to this text such as The VTK User’s Guide.
For more information contact Kitware, Inc. at [email protected]
You may also order directly from Kitware’s electronic store
at http://www.kitware.com/products.
Contributors to this work include the listed authors as well as the following.
Cover Design: Sébastien Barré
Production Editor: Amy Squillacote
Technical Contributors: World-Wide VTK Developer Community at www.vtk.org.
All product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.
This book was previously published by: Pearson Education, Inc.
formerly known as Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Printed and produced in the United States of America.
ISBN 1-930934-19-X
Contents
Preface
xiii
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
Chapter 2
xv
What Is Visualization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Examples of Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Why Visualize? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Imaging, Computer Graphics, and Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Origins of Data Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Purpose of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
What This Book Is Not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
How to Use This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Software Considerations and Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Chapter-by-Chapter Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 2 : Object-Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 3 : Computer Graphics Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 4 : The Visualization Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 5 : Basic Data Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 6 : Fundamental Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 7 : Advanced Computer Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 8 : Advanced Data Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 9 : Advanced Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 10 : Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 11 : Visualization on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 12 : Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Legal Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Object-Oriented Design
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goals of Good Software Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Oriented Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Oriented Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is an Object? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Oriented Modelling and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Object Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Dynamic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Functional Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Oriented Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Oriented Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .