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tÉlÉcharger economics for the ib diploma ellie tragakes pdf

Economics
for the IB Diploma
Second edition
Ellie Tragakes
Cambridge University Press’s mission is to advance learning,
knowledge and research worldwide.
Our IB Diploma resources aim to:
s encourage learners to explore concepts, ideas and topics
that have local and global significance
s help students develop a positive attitude to learning in
preparation for higher education
s assist students in approaching complex questions, applying
critical-thinking skills and forming reasoned answers.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,
Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521186407
© Cambridge University Press 2009, 2012
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and
to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no
reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission
of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2009
Second edition 2012
Reprinted 2012
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-521-18640-7 Paperback with CD-ROM for Windows and Mac
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or
accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in
this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is,
or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
This material has been developed independently by the publisher
and the content is in no way connected with nor endorsed by the
International Baccalaureate Organization.
Contents
Introduction to the student and teacher
Introduction
Chapter 1 The foundations of economics
1.1 Scarcity, choice and opportunity cost
1.2 Economics as a social science
1.3 Central themes
Section 1 Microeconomics
Chapter 2 Competitive markets: demand and supply
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Introduction to competitive markets
Demand
Supply
Market equilibrium: demand and supply
Linear demand and supply functions and market equilibrium (higher level topic)
The role of the price mechanism and market efficiency
Chapter 3 Elasticities
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Price elasticity of demand (PED)
Cross-price elasticity of demand (XED)
Income elasticity of demand (YED)
Price elasticity of supply (PES)
Chapter 4 Government intervention
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Indirect taxes
Indirect (excise) taxes: market outcomes, social welfare and tax incidence (higher level topic)
Subsidies
Subsidies: market outcomes and social welfare (higher level topic)
Price controls
Chapter 5 Market failure
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
The meaning of market failure: allocative inefficiency
Externalities: diverging private and social benefits and costs
Negative externalities of production and consumption
Positive externalities of production and consumption
Lack of public goods
Common access resources and the threat to sustainability
Asymmetric information (higher level topic)
Abuse of monopoly power (higher level topic)
The problem of government failure (policy failure) (supplementary material)
Contents
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